Thu. Apr 11th, 2024

Rivers are natural waterways and are gathering places for fresh water that originates naturally and flows from high to low places. Then, the river water will flow towards the ocean, lake or river which is larger in size. In the upstream area of the river, the water will definitely flow faster than the river current flowing downstream. It should be understood that rivers do not always flow straight, some are winding.

Rainwater that falls to the earth’s surface will automatically flow through rivers. Then the water will flow towards the sea or lake and larger reservoirs. The water in rivers is usually a collection of precipitation, for example rainwater, spring water, and also in some countries, river water is the result of slowly melting ice or snow. There are several parts that will form a river. Where it originally came from a spring which continued to flow until it reached a tributary. Some of the tributary streams will continue to flow until they meet each other and form a main river.

Factors that Shape River Flow Patterns

The following are various factors that can encourage the creation of river flow patterns, including:


The slope of the slope where the river is located can have an impact on the formation of its flow pattern. The steeper the slope, the more irregular the river flow will be. Likewise, if the slope is shallow, the river flow pattern will be more regular. The slope of the slope is the result of the formation of a river flow pattern, because the slope structure will have a big impact on a river flow pattern.

Differences in Rock Types

Rocks are hard but can be destroyed by periodic drops of water. Likewise, rocks at the bottom of rivers, rocks that are continuously exposed to river water will increasingly erode and form river flow patterns. This can also cause depth levels in a river. Where sedimented rocks in the river bed will cause the river to become shallow.

Rock Structure

Differences in rock types are one of the driving factors in the creation of river basins which are studied from the bottom. However, rock structure also influences the shape of river flow patterns on the surface. The more complex the rock structure, the more regular the river flow pattern will be. The rock structure on the surface of the river flow can support the fertility of the soil around the river flow area. Where the soil formed is alluvial soil.

Tectonic Plate Movement

Movements that occur in the type of plate tectonics in the bowels of the earth can produce natural features that occur in the earth’s crust. This can not only happen to the appearance of the land, but can also affect the shape of river flow patterns. Where the movement of tectonic plates can have a bad impact on river flow patterns, because the movements that occur can cause blockages in rivers upstream.

Rectangular River Flow Pattern

In general, rivers that have a rectangular flow pattern will have their flow controlled by geological structures, such as fracture structures and fault structures. Rivers that have a rectangular flow pattern generally occur in igneous rock structures. Rivers with this type of flow pattern usually have a straight shape following the direction of the fault. The characteristics of rivers with this flow pattern are that the shape of the river is perpendicular and is the result of water channels that follow patterns originating from geological structures.

Rectangular river flow patterns generally develop in rocks that are resistant to erosion and are nearly uniform in type but controlled by fractures that originate in two directions and have mutually perpendicular angles. The branches of this river flow pattern will usually form obtuse angles with the main river.

Trellis River Flow Pattern

Usually trellis is also known as a fence. It is true, as the name suggests, the flow pattern of the trellis river is a river whose flow is similar to a fence. Where the type of flow pattern is controlled by geological slot garansi structures in the form of folded anticlines and synclines. Rivers that have this type of flow pattern are characterized by a collection of water channels that form a parallel pattern and flow following the direction of the slope and perpendicular to the main channel. The main channel in the trellis river flow pattern is generally in the same direction as the fold axis.

The trellis flow pattern contains a combination of subsequence and consequent rivers. This type of river flow pattern can also form along parallel valleys in mountain fold belts. In this area, this type of river will often pass through valleys to later join the main channel which will eventually lead to the river mouth.

Parallel or Parallel River Flow Patterns

A parallel river flow pattern system is a flow system created by steep and rugged slopes. This is due to the steep slope morphology, resulting in a straight river flow following the direction of the slope with relatively few river branches. Parallel river flow patterns are created on slope morphology that has a uniform or similar slope. Parallel flow patterns sometimes indicate the presence of a large fault and cut through areas that have folded coarse rock and steep slopes. All forms of transition can occur in trellis, parallel, and dendritic flow patterns.

Centrifugal Radial River Flow Pattern

The centrifugal radial river flow pattern is one of the river flow patterns in the cone of a volcano or dome that has just reached its young stage. Where the flow of this type of river is down the slope.

Pinnate River Flow Pattern

The pinnate river flow pattern is a form of river flow that tends to be more complex than the dendritic river flow pattern. Where the flow pattern of this type of river has the characteristic that its branches or tributaries are parallel to the main river. Apart from that, the flow pattern of this river has an estuary at the main river which is shaped at an acute angle. The angles in the pinnate river flow pattern will represent slopes with a high degree of slope. This river flow pattern can be found on mountain slopes, such as the slopes of Mount Sinabung, the slopes of Mount Kerinci, and also the slopes of Mount Tandikat.

Barbed River Flow Pattern

The barbed pattern is one of the river flow patterns in the upstream area and flows with a stream that tends to be narrow. In this flow pattern, tributaries or river branches will join the main river and slot server thailand be accompanied by an acute angle towards the upstream. This river flow pattern was created due to river flow piracy. The characteristics of the flow pattern of barbed rivers are that they are shaped like open horns or scissors. This river flow pattern can be found in Bali, East Java and Nusa Tenggara.

Deranged River Flow Pattern

A deranged river flow pattern is a river flow pattern that has an irregular shape. This river flow pattern is usually in lakes and swamps. This type of deranged pattern has currents coming in and out through lakes or swamps. Meanwhile, the branches or tributaries are generally short. The existence of deranged river flow patterns can only be found around swamps or lakes.

Braided River Flow Pattern

A braided or woven river flow pattern is a river flow pattern that is formed because the river flow is divided. This phenomenon originates from disturbances in river flow or currents, such as sedimentation of river flows in the middle. It is possible that this sediment is a carryover from the river flow from the previous flow.

Types of River Flow Patterns

Differences in river flow patterns from one area to another are greatly influenced by differences in topography, structure and also bedrock lithology. In general, there are several types of river flow patterns. The following is a complete explanation:

Dendritic River Flow Patterns

The first river flow pattern is the dendritic river flow pattern. If we look at a cross-section of a leaf that has veins, there we will see the flow pattern. The pattern of dendritic flow closely resembles the cross-section of a leaf. So, we will see that this type of river has many branches flowing in all directions. In general, this river flow pattern is controlled by homogeneous lithology. Where this river flow pattern has a flow structure that is controlled by the type of rock. Dendritic flow pattern is a river flow pattern with flow branches that resemble the lines in the cross section of a leaf. Basically, the flow pattern is controlled by homogeneous lithology. Where this river flow pattern has a flow structure that is controlled by the type of rock. For flow texture, it is defined as the length of the river flow per unit area. For example, a stream flowing over rocks that is resistant to erosion will form a dense flow structure. Meanwhile, rocks such as granite will form a texture that tends to be smooth. The resistance of rocks to erosion will have a major impact on the formation of river basins. Meanwhile, rocks that are not resistant to erosion will easily erode and form river channels.

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